May 1

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Understanding Sunspot Activity: A Comprehensive Overview

By hacheng1@gmail.com

May 1, 2023


In this article, readers will gain a comprehensive understanding of sunspots, their definition, characteristics, formation, and lifespan. Delving into the historical observations of sunspot activity, we highlight early records, major events, and contributions of renowned astronomers.

We explain how sunspot activity is measured, including the Sunspot Number Index (Wolf Number) and the Group Sunspot Number (GSN), as well as modern observational techniques. The article also covers solar cycles, their phases, and predictions for future cycles.

Moreover, we discuss the effects of sunspot activity on Earth, such as solar flares, geomagnetic storms, impacts on climate, and disruptions to satellite communication systems. Lastly, we explore current research and developments in the field, emphasizing advancements in solar observation technologies, international collaboration, long-term forecasting, and measures to mitigate adverse effects on Earth.

Understanding Sunspots

Sunspots are dark spots that appear on the surface of the sun, which are cooler and less active than the surrounding photosphere. These temporary phenomena, sometimes visible to the naked eye or through telescopes, can have significant effects on Earth’s weather, climate, and telecommunication systems. To better understand sunspots, it is essential to know their definition, characteristics, formation, and lifespan.

Definition of Sunspots

Sunspots are temporary, cooler, darker areas on the sun’s photosphere (the outermost layer of the sun visible to the naked eye). They are caused by intense magnetic activity on the sun, which inhibits the flow of energy from the sun’s interior to its surface. The decrease in energy flow results in a reduction of temperature and brightness in these regions, making them appear darker compared to the surrounding areas.

Sunspots are the most visible manifestation of solar activity, and their number, size, and location on the photosphere provide critical information on the sun’s magnetic state. The study of sunspots is an essential component of solar physics, as they play a crucial role in our understanding of solar cycles, solar flares, and space weather.

Characteristics of Sunspots

Several unique characteristics distinguish sunspots from the rest of the sun’s surface:

  1. Temperature: While the sun’s photosphere has an average temperature of 5,500 degrees Celsius (9,932 degrees Fahrenheit), sunspots are cooler, with temperatures ranging from 3,500 to 4,500 degrees Celsius (6,332 to 8,132 degrees Fahrenheit).
  2. Appearance: Sunspots appear as dark spots on the sun’s surface, surrounded by a lighter, more active region called the penumbra. The central part of a sunspot, called the umbra, is the darkest and coolest part.
  3. Magnetic Fields: Sunspots have intense magnetic fields, with strengths up to thousands of times more powerful than Earth’s magnetic field. The magnetic fields cause the surrounding plasma to become concentrated, creating a “magnetic knot” effect that inhibits the flow of energy to the sun’s surface.
  4. Size and Shape: Sunspots can come in various sizes, ranging from a few hundred to several tens of thousands of kilometers in diameter. Their shapes can also vary from circular to irregular and elongated forms.
  5. Groups and Pairs: Sunspots often appear in groups, sometimes forming complex clusters. They are frequently observed in pairs, with each spot having an opposite magnetic polarity, often leading to significant magnetic activity and interactions.

Formation and Lifespan of Sunspots

Sunspots are formed due to the sun’s magnetic field and its continuous evolution. The sun is composed of plasma, an extremely hot and partially ionized gas that can carry electric currents and generate magnetic fields. As the sun rotates, its plasma moves in a process known as differential rotation – meaning that the equator rotates more quickly than the poles. This differential rotation causes the sun’s magnetic field lines to become twisted and tangled, eventually leading to the formation of sunspots.

The sun’s magnetic field lines emerge from the sun’s interior and pierce through the photosphere, creating regions of intense magnetic activity. When the magnetic field is strong enough, it can inhibit the convective motion of plasma within the sun, which in turn reduces the flow of energy from the sun’s core to its surface. This decrease in energy leads to a reduced temperature and brightness in these areas, resulting in the formation of sunspots.

Sunspots have a relatively short lifespan compared to other celestial objects. They typically exist for several days to a few weeks, though some sunspots can last for months. Sunspots evolve over time, changing in size, shape, and magnetic complexity. Eventually, the magnetic fields that created the sunspots become dispersed and weakened, allowing the sunspots to dissipate and vanish.

The number of sunspots varies over time, closely related to the 11-year solar cycle. During periods of solar maximum, the sun experiences high sunspot activity, while solar minimum corresponds to periods of low sunspot numbers. Understanding sunspots and their cyclic behavior is critical in predicting and mitigating the potential impacts of solar activity on Earth’s climate, weather, and technological systems.

Historical Observations of Sunspot Activity

Early Records and Observations

Sunspots are temporary dark spots that appear on the Sun’s surface. They are cooler and less active than the surrounding areas and are caused by intense magnetic activity. The study of sunspots has a long and interesting history dating back to ancient civilizations. Early historical observations of sunspots have been recorded across the world, from China to the Middle East and Europe.

Earliest records of sunspots date back to ancient Chinese astronomers as early as 28 BCE. They made careful observations of the sun and kept detailed records of their findings. The Chinese named these spots “guest stars.” In addition to the Chinese, the civilizations of ancient Greece, Egypt, and India also noted the presence of sunspots.

In the early Middle Ages, sunspot observations were less frequent following the fall of the Western Roman Empire due to the decline in astronomy as a field of study. However, during the Islamic Golden Age, Arab astronomers made contributions to the understanding of sunspots. Ibn Yunus, an Egyptian astronomer, made a series of observations that implied the existence of sunspots in the 10th century. In Europe, sunspot observations were limited during the Middle Ages, and the scientific understanding of them remained stagnant.

In the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, European astronomers began to focus their attention on the sun again. The medieval scientist John of Worcester documented the observation of a sunspot in 1128. Galileo Galilei, Christoph Scheiner, Johannes Fabricius, and Thomas Harriot, among others, contributed to the growing understanding of sunspots in the 17th century. These astronomers used the telescopes they developed to observe and record sunspot activity more accurately than earlier observers that relied solely on the naked eye.

Astronomers’ Contributions to Sunspot Studies

The contributions made by astronomers during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries cannot be overstated. Scientists like Sir Isaac Newton, William Herschel, and Samuel Heinrich Schwabe all have played crucial roles in the study and understanding of sunspots.

Galileo Galilei and Christoph Scheiner both independently observed sunspots in 1610 and 1611. Galileo’s work on sunspots helped demonstrate that the sun was not a perfect celestial body, as was previously believed, but had minor imperfections on its surface. Scheiner attributed sunspots to small planets revolving around the sun, while Galileo viewed them as part of the sun itself.

In the 18th century, Sir William Herschel was the first to study sunspots systematically, and he discovered that the number of sunspots changed over time with a period of about 11 years, known as the solar cycle. He also suggested that sunspots affected Earth’s climate, particularly through variations in solar irradiance.

Samuel Heinrich Schwabe in the 19th century confirmed Herschel’s observations by meticulously recording sunspot activity for almost 20 years. He discovered the 11-year solar cycle, laying the foundation for modern solar physics. His discovery facilitated the understanding of the mechanisms at work that produce sunspots and made it possible to more accurately forecast solar activity.

Major Historical Sunspot Events

Throughout history, there have been several notable sunspot events that have impacted Earth in various ways.

  1. The Maunder Minimum (1645-1715): This period of low sunspot activity corresponds with the coldest part of the Little Ice Age, a time of lower average temperatures and harsh winters in Europe and North America. While there is still debate among scientists as to the direct connection between sunspots and Earth’s climate, the correlation between the Maunder Minimum and the Little Ice Age remains a topic of study.
  2. The Year without a Summer (1816): After the massive volcanic eruption of Mount Tambora in 1815, a significant decrease in global temperatures occurred, exacerbated by an unusually low number of sunspots. The decreased temperature caused widespread crop failures, food shortages, and social unrest in several parts of the world.
  3. The Carrington Event (1859): Named after British astronomer Richard Carrington, this solar storm was the result of a massive solar flare that ejected a cloud of charged particles towards Earth. The event caused widespread disruption of telegraph systems and generated stunning auroras visible even at lower latitudes. Such an event today would have severe consequences due to our reliance on electrical systems and technology.

These historical sunspot events serve as important reminders of the impact that solar activity can have on our planet and the vital role that monitoring and understanding sunspots play in preparing for and mitigating potential risks.

Measuring Sunspot Activity

Sunspot activity, which refers to the appearance and frequency of sunspots across the Sun’s surface, is a key indicator of solar activity levels. Measuring sunspot activity helps scientists better understand the Sun’s behavior, its impact on our planet, and our broader space environment. This section will discuss the methods employed to measure sunspot activity, including the Sunspot Number Index (Wolf Number), Group Sunspot Number (GSN), sunspot area and classification, and modern observational techniques.

Sunspot Number Index (Wolf Number)

The Sunspot Number Index, also known as the Wolf Number, is one of the oldest and most widely used methods for quantifying sunspot activity. It was first introduced by the Swiss astronomer Rudolf Wolf in 1848.

The index represents the total number of sunspots visible on the Sun’s surface and takes into account both individual sunspot counts and the number of sunspot groups. The Wolf Number is calculated using the following formula:

R = k (10 * g + s)

Where R is the Wolf Number, k is a scaling factor that accounts for differences in observational techniques and the observer’s location, g is the number of sunspot groups, and s is the total number of individual sunspots.

Over its long history, the Wolf Number has been instrumental in identifying the 11-year solar cycle, a pattern of increasing and decreasing sunspot activity that correlates closely with various solar phenomena.

Group Sunspot Number (GSN)

The Group Sunspot Number (GSN) is an alternative measurement method for sunspot activity that was developed in the 1990s. It focuses on counting the number of sunspot groups rather than the total number of individual sunspots. The intention behind the GSN was to create a more consistent and reliable method for tracking sunspot activity across different observers and observing conditions.

The GSN is calculated by multiplying the daily average number of sunspot groups by 12.08, which accounts for the average ratio between sunspot groups and individual sunspots observed during the historical period used for calibration.

While the GSN has provided valuable insights into sunspot activity during the historical time, it has faced criticism in recent years due to inconsistencies in its calibration compared to the Wolf Number. Many scientists now advocate for a more unified approach for measuring sunspot activity that combines elements from both the Wolf Number and GSN.

Sunspot Area and Classification

In addition to counting sunspot groups and individual sunspots, scientists measure sunspot activity by examining the total area occupied by sunspots on the Sun’s surface. Sunspot area measurements are usually given in millionths of the solar hemisphere (MH), making it easier to compare sunspot activity levels across different solar cycles.

Sunspots are also classified based on their complexity and magnetic structure. The Mount Wilson Classification System, developed in the early 20th century, assigns sunspots to one of three categories based on their morphology:

  • Alpha: Single, unipolar sunspot groups
  • Beta: Bipolar sunspot groups with a clear separation between opposite polarities
  • Gamma: Complex sunspot groups with mixed polarities and no clear separation

This classification system helps scientists better understand the magnetic complexity of sunspot groups and their potential impact on solar activity, including solar flares and coronal mass ejections.

Modern Observational Techniques

Modern technology has significantly improved our ability to observe and measure sunspot activity. While historical observations relied on telescopes equipped with simple filters to protect the viewer’s eyes from the Sun’s intense light, today’s solar telescopes employ advanced filtering techniques, high-resolution imaging, and tools to study the Sun in various wavelengths.

Ground-based solar observatories, such as the National Solar Observatory in the United States, are equipped with advanced telescopes and instruments to continuously monitor sunspot activity. Space-based observatories, such as NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the European Space Agency’s Solar Orbiter, provide even more precise and comprehensive observations by eliminating the impact of Earth’s atmosphere on the measurements.

These modern techniques allow scientists to study sunspot activity in greater detail, enabling better understanding of the Sun’s behavior and its impact on our space environment. Through continued observation and research, we can deepen our knowledge of sunspot activity and its influence on the dynamics of the Sun and the solar-terrestrial relationship.

Solar Cycles and Sunspot Activity

Overview of Solar Cycles

Solar cycles are a natural phenomenon that occurs on the Sun’s surface due to the changing magnetic fields. A solar cycle lasts for an average of 11 years, during which the Sun goes through periods of high and low activity. The level of solar activity is measured based on the number and intensity of sunspots, which are darker, cooler, and highly magnetized areas on the surface of the Sun.

Sunspots are driven by the interaction of the Sun’s magnetic field with its plasma, leading to the intensification and weakening of the magnetic fields. The regular, periodic behavior of sunspot activity is what defines the solar cycle. Studying solar cycles and understanding the intricate connection between the magnetic field, solar activity, and the resulting space weather have been essential for scientists to better comprehend the impact of the Sun on the Earth’s environment and technology.

Phases of a Solar Cycle

A solar cycle is divided into two phases: the solar maximum and the solar minimum.

  1. Solar Maximum: This is the phase when the Sun’s magnetic field and sunspot activity are at their peak. The solar maximum marks a period of increased solar activity, leading to the formation of a higher number of sunspots, solar flares, and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). CMEs are the release of massive amounts of energy and charged particles, as a result of powerful magnetic field reconfigurations. These solar events can impact Earth’s magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmospheric layers, affecting various aspects such as radio communications, satellite functionality, and even have implications on human health when exposed to higher radiation levels.
  2. Solar Minimum: In direct contrast to the solar maximum, solar minimum signifies the period of least solar activity when the number of sunspots and solar events decrease to their lowest point. There is a reduction in solar flares, CMEs, and the overall level of solar radiation. However, this period is not entirely void of space weather events, as cosmic rays from outside our solar system can increase during this phase, posing a risk to satellite functionality and astronauts in space.

Historical and Recent Solar Cycles

The sunspot activity has been monitored systematically since the 18th century, resulting in a historical record of solar cycles spanning over 280 years. The first solar cycle began in 1755 and was numbered “Solar Cycle 1.” Scientists have studied 24 completed solar cycles as of 2020 (the 25th cycle started in December 2019).

One of the most significant historical events related to solar cycles is the Maunder Minimum (1645-1715), an extended period of minimal sunspot activity. Solar cycles 5 and 6 (1790-1837) also marked a period of prolonged low solar activity known as the Dalton Minimum.

Solar Cycle 24 began in December 2008 and ended in December 2019. This recent cycle was notably weaker compared to the previous few cycles, with a peak sunspot number of around 120, far lower than the average peak of 179.

Predicting Future Solar Cycles

Predicting solar cycles is a complex task, mainly because of the interplay between various factors involved in the process of solar magnetic field generation and dissipation. Several techniques have been developed to predict the strength and timing of future solar cycles, including numerical models and statistical methods.

One widely used methodology is to track the polar magnetic fields of the Sun, which are considered precursors to future cycles. Scientists utilize magnetic field data from solar observatories, such as the Wilcox Solar Observatory and the National Solar Observatory, to monitor the Sun’s polar magnetic fields and their evolution. Moreover, models have been developed to simulate the behavior of the solar dynamo – the interaction of fluid flows and magnetic fields in the solar interior that is responsible for generating the magnetic fields driving the solar cycle.

Given the recent trends in solar activity and the polarity of the Sun’s magnetic field, solar forecasts suggest that Solar Cycle 25 could be potentially similar in strength or weaker than Solar Cycle 24. This prediction, however, comes with considerable uncertainty as solar cycle prediction remains a significant challenge in solar physics.

Effects of Sunspot Activity on Earth

Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the Sun’s photosphere that appear as darker and cooler regions in comparison to their surroundings. They arise due to strong magnetic fields that reduce convection in the Sun’s outer layers. Sunspot activity varies in an 11-year cycle, known as the solar cycle, and its effects extend far beyond the Sun’s surface, influencing Earth in several ways. In this section, we will explore the effects of sunspot activity on Earth, discussing solar flares, coronal mass ejections, geomagnetic storms, auroras, Earth’s climate, and communication systems.

Solar Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME)

Solar flares are massive bursts of energy released in the form of x-rays and ultraviolet radiation. They are associated with sunspots as the strong magnetic fields present in these regions can store and release significant amounts of energy. Solar flares can last from a few minutes to several hours and impact Earth’s upper atmosphere, affecting satellite-based communication systems.

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are another outcome of sunspot activity. A CME is a large-scale expulsion of plasma and magnetic field from the Sun’s corona. When directed towards Earth, CMEs can deliver a substantial number of high-energy particles to our planet’s magnetic field, potentially causing geomagnetic storms.

Geomagnetic Storms and Auroras

Geomagnetic storms are disturbances in Earth’s magnetosphere driven by solar wind fluctuations in the interplanetary medium. They usually result from CMEs or high-speed solar wind streams emerging from coronal holes. Geomagnetic storms can produce temporary disturbances in the ionosphere, creating disruptions in radio communication, GPS navigation systems, and high-frequency (HF) radio systems.

Auroras, also known as the Northern and Southern Lights, are a direct consequence of geomagnetic storms. When CMEs interact with Earth’s magnetic field, charged particles are accelerated into the atmosphere. These particles collide with the molecules and atoms in Earth’s upper atmosphere, causing them to emit light in a variety of colors. The intensity and location of auroras depend on the strength of the solar activity, and during particularly strong events, auroras can be observed at lower latitudes than usual.

Impact on Earth’s Climate

The relationship between sunspot activity and Earth’s climate has long been a subject of scientific discussion. The prevailing theory is that solar irradiance fluctuations associated with sunspot activity can contribute to small changes in Earth’s climate. Although research indicates that sunspot cycles may play a role in short-term climate variations, the extent of this effect, especially in comparison to anthropogenic factors, is not yet fully understood.

A recent reexamination of the “Little Ice Age” – a period of reduced solar activity between the 16th and 19th centuries – suggested that variations in solar radiation were a significant driver of this global cooling event. While the impact of sunspot activity on Earth’s climate is still debated, such historical correlations provide interesting insights into our understanding of the Sun’s influence on our planet.

Effects on Satellite and Communication Systems

Sunspot activity can have significant implications for satellite and communication systems. During times of heightened solar activity, satellite electronics and communication systems can be damaged or disrupted by high-energy particles and electromagnetic radiation. This can lead to temporary or permanent failure of satellites, which would have severe consequences for modern communication and navigation systems.

Geomagnetic storms induced by CMEs can also lead to disruptions in the electrical grid, potentially causing widespread power outages. The most well-known example of this occurred in 1989 when a geomagnetic storm caused a massive blackout across the Canadian province of Quebec.

Moreover, increased sunspot activity can cause an increase in the drag experienced by satellites orbiting Earth, shortening their operational lifetimes. Space agencies usually attempt to mitigate such risks by employing radiation-hardened satellite components and shielding, as well as planning satellite orbits and operations to avoid extreme space weather events.

In conclusion, sunspot activity on the Sun has various effects on Earth. From spectacular auroral displays to disruptions in communication systems and potential impacts on the climate, our planet’s relationship with the Sun is complex and multifaceted. As we continue to rely on satellite-based technologies, monitoring and preparing for the effects of sunspot activity remains vital for our modern society.

Sunspot Activity Research and Future Developments

Sunspot activity has long been a subject of fascination and research for scientists around the world. Historical accounts of sunspot observations date back thousands of years, and modern technologies have significantly advanced our understanding of these solar phenomena. The study of sunspot activity is important for multiple reasons, including determining potential effects on Earth’s climate, developing early-warning systems to protect satellites and power grids from solar storms, and predicting space weather for the sake of astronauts and deep space missions. In this section, we will discuss recent advancements in solar observation technologies, the importance of international collaboration, forecasting sunspot activity, and measures that can be taken to mitigate adverse effects on Earth.

Advancements in Solar Observation Technologies

Over the past few decades, there have been remarkable advancements in solar observation technologies that have significantly improved our understanding of sunspot activity. One of the major breakthroughs was the launch of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) in 1995, which provided detailed images of the Sun’s outer atmosphere and revealed the complex processes responsible for creating sunspots. Subsequent missions, such as the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) launched in 2010, have provided even more detailed images and information about the Sun.

New technologies are also being developed to observe and study the Sun from the ground. The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) in Hawaii, for example, is the world’s most powerful solar observatory, producing high-resolution images of the Sun’s surface, allowing scientists to further investigate the mechanisms behind sunspot formation and solar activity.

Artificial intelligence and machine learning are also playing an increasingly important role in sunspot research, helping scientists to analyze vast amounts of data, identify patterns, and ultimately enhance our understanding of the Sun’s behavior.

Importance of International Collaboration

Sunspot activity affects the entire world, so it is vital for there to be international collaboration in researching and understanding this solar phenomenon. Many nations have their own space agencies and observatories, but the study of the Sun and its impact on Earth is an endeavor that extends beyond national borders. International collaboration is necessary for several reasons:

  • Pooling resources: Countries can share various resources, include observation technologies, so that there is a comprehensive and continuous monitoring of solar activity.
  • Sharing knowledge: Collaborative research enables scientists around the world to share their findings, which in turn leads to a better understanding of sunspot activity and its potential implications.
  • Developing global strategies: International collaboration can lead to the formulation of strategies to mitigate the effects of space weather on Earth’s infrastructure and satellite systems, as well as protect astronauts and spacecraft from potential dangers such as solar storms.

Long-Term Forecasting of Sunspot Activity

Long-term forecasting of sunspot activity is essential for advanced planning to mitigate potential hazards associated with solar flares, coronal mass ejections, and other space weather events. While short-term predictions are becoming more accurate, long-term forecasts remain a challenge. However, scientists are making progress in this area by studying solar cycles and understanding the mechanisms behind the generation of sunspots.

Current research involves analyzing historical sunspot data, as well as observations and simulations of the Sun’s magnetic field, which plays a crucial role in the formation of sunspots. By understanding the intricacies of solar behavior, scientists can refine their models and improve the predictive capabilities of long-term sunspot forecasts. Such forecasts have important implications for various industries, including space exploration and the protection of critical infrastructure on Earth.

Developing Measures to Mitigate Adverse Effects

As our understanding of sunspot activity and its potential impacts grows, it becomes increasingly important to explore ways to protect Earth’s infrastructure, as well as ensure the safety of astronauts and spacecraft from the effects of solar storms.

One such measure is creating early-warning systems and protective technologies for power grids, which can be vulnerable to damage caused by solar flares and the geomagnetic disturbances they induce. Additionally, there is ongoing research into developing materials that can protect space travelers and spacecraft from the harmful radiation associated with solar events.

International coordination in monitoring sunspot activity also plays a major role in mitigating adverse effects. By sharing information and resources, countries can be better prepared to address the challenges posed by solar storms and ensure the security of their infrastructure and space assets.

In conclusion, the study of sunspot activity is essential for understanding the Sun’s behavior, as well as predicting and potentially mitigating the impacts of solar events on Earth. The field is constantly evolving, driven by advancements in observation technologies and international collaboration. The future of sunspot research will undoubtedly yield new insights into the mysteries of the Sun and its influence on the solar system.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. What is the significance of sunspot activity in solar dynamics?

Sunspot activity offers critical insights into solar dynamics, particularly regarding the magnetic field variations and the solar cycle. Studying sunspots helps scientists understand the energy distribution, solar radiation fluctuations, and its potential impact on Earth’s climate.

2. How does sunspot activity influence Earth’s climate and technological systems?

Increased sunspot activity corresponds to enhanced solar radiation, influencing Earth’s climate by altering temperature patterns and atmospheric circulation. High sunspot activity can also generate solar flares and geomagnetic storms, potentially impacting satellite operations, power grids, and telecommunication systems.

3. What is the role of magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of sunspots?

Magnetic fields play a crucial role in the formation and evolution of sunspots by inhibiting convective plasma flow, resulting in cooler, darker areas on the Sun’s surface. The interaction of magnetic field lines within and around sunspots contributes to their structure, movement, and energetics.

4. How does solar cycle duration and intensity correlate with sunspot activity variation?

The solar cycle, with an average duration of 11 years, displays systematic variation in sunspot activity. The cycle’s intensity, characterized by the number of sunspots, peaks during the solar maximum and diminishes during the solar minimum, reflecting fluctuations in the underlying magnetic activity.

5. What tools and methods do scientists use to monitor and analyze sunspot activity?

Scientists employ various tools and methods to monitor and analyze sunspot activity, including ground-based observatories, telescopes, and space missions such as the Solar Dynamics Observatory. They use imaging techniques, spectral analyses, and numerical simulations to study the physical processes governing sunspot behavior.

6. How do sunspots’ sizes, lifetimes, and distribution patterns shape solar physics understanding?

Sunspots’ sizes, lifetimes, and distribution patterns provide essential information about the underlying physical processes governing solar activity. Analyzing these characteristics helps in understanding convection dynamics, magnetic field interactions, and overall solar cycle behavior, enriching solar physics knowledge.

hacheng1@gmail.com

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