April 14


How Sun Tracking Technology Increases Solar Power Generation

By hacheng1@gmail.com

April 14, 2023

In this article, readers will learn about the importance of sun tracking in increasing solar power efficiency, the different factors affecting solar energy conversion, and how to maximize power generation using sun tracking. The various types of sun-tracking technologies, such as single-axis trackers and dual-axis trackers, as well as their sub-categories, will be discussed. Additionally, the article delves into the design considerations for sun-tracking systems, such as geographical, climatic, and site-specific requirements. Key components of sun tracking systems and their maintenance and optimization will also be explored, along with case studies that highlight successful applications of the technology in different scenarios.

The Importance of Sun Tracking in Solar Power Efficiency

Solar energy is one of the most abundant and clean sources of renewable energy, largely used for electricity generation globally. The amount of solar energy reaching Earth’s surface is vast, but converting this energy into electricity at maximum efficiency remains a challenge. Sun tracking technology has emerged as an effective solution to boost solar energy conversion and utilization.

Factors Affecting Solar Energy Conversion

In converting sunlight into electrical power, the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar panels is crucial. Their efficiency is affected by various factors, including:

  1. Solar irradiance: The amount of sunlight reaching Earth’s surface changes throughout the day and depends on latitude, season, and local weather conditions. When irradiance is high, solar panels generate more energy.
  2. Angle of incidence: The angle at which sunlight strikes the solar panels directly affects energy production. Solar panels are more efficient when sunlight hits them perpendicularly, as it increases the amount of energy captured.
  3. Temperature: Solar panel efficiency decreases as temperatures rise. Higher temperatures can hamper solar energy conversion, rendering solar cells less effective.
  4. Dirt and dust: Accumulation of dirt and dust on solar panels can block sunlight, reducing their efficiency.
  5. Shadows: Even brief shadowing from clouds, buildings, or vegetation can significantly affect the performance of solar panels.

Maximizing Power Generation with Sun Tracking

Sun tracking is a technique used to align solar panels with the sun’s position throughout the day, allowing them to capture sunlight more effectively. This method enhances the performance of solar panels by addressing some of the factors that impact their efficiency, namely the angle of incidence and solar irradiance.

Sun tracking systems can either be single-axis (tracking the sun’s east-west movement) or dual-axis (simultaneously tracking the sun’s east-west and north-south movements). Both types of tracking systems can increase solar energy production. Single-axis trackers are typically the more economical option, while dual-axis trackers provide better overall efficiency.

Sun tracking systems have various benefits, which include:

  1. Increased energy yield: Sun tracking systems can increase solar energy yield by up to 45% compared to fixed systems. Dual-axis trackers can deliver even greater gains in energy production.
  2. Improved power output stability: As sun tracking systems maintain optimal sunlight capture throughout the day, the power output of the solar system remains more stable.
  3. Enhanced panel lifespan: By following the sun’s movement, sun tracking systems reduce the stresses caused by thermal variations on solar panels, potentially prolonging their life.

Despite these advantages, sun tracking systems have some disadvantages, such as higher costs and increased complexity associated with installation, operation, and maintenance. Moreover, sun trackers consume a small amount of power themselves to move the panels, which can offset some energy gains.

Comparing Fixed and Sun Tracking PV Systems

Solar energy systems can be broadly categorized as fixed-tilt and sun-tracking systems. Fixed-tilt systems have solar panels mounted at a fixed angle, while sun tracking systems automatically adjust the panel angle to follow the sun’s movement.

Fixed-tilt systems are simpler and more cost-effective, with lower installation and maintenance costs. However, they can’t adjust their angle to optimize energy capture, which may lead to lower overall efficiency, especially during periods of low sun or suboptimal solar irradiance.

In contrast, sun tracking systems offer higher efficiency, yielding more energy than fixed systems, and maintaining consistent power output throughout the day. However, they have a higher upfront cost and may require more maintenance due to their mechanical components.

Ultimately, the choice between a fixed-tilt system and a sun tracking system depends on the specific needs and priorities of the user, weighed against the costs involved and the expected increase in efficiency. In areas with abundant sunlight, elevated energy prices, and strong performance incentives or financial benefits, sun tracking PV systems may deliver superior value in the long run.

Types of Sun Tracking Technology

Sun tracking technology is used in solar power systems to optimize the amount of sunlight captured by solar panels, thereby increasing their overall efficiency. By following the sun’s path across the sky, sun trackers enable solar panels to produce more power than their stationary counterparts. There are several types of sun tracking technologies, which can be classified into two main categories: single axis trackers and dual axis trackers. Each type has its unique features and benefits, making them suitable for different applications.

Single Axis Trackers

Single axis trackers follow the sun’s movement along one axis, usually from east to west. These trackers are more straightforward and less expensive than dual axis trackers, making them a popular choice for many residential and small-scale solar installations. Single axis trackers can be further sub-classified into horizontal single axis trackers, vertical single axis trackers, and tilted single axis trackers.

Horizontal Single Axis Tracker

Horizontal single axis trackers (HSAT) rotate the solar panels around a single horizontal axis, often parallel to the ground. These trackers are popular in low-latitude and tropical regions, where the sun’s path is predominantly in the east-to-west direction. HSATs are easier to install, maintain, and require less space compared to other types of trackers. Moreover, their simple design reduces the chance of failure and ensures a consistent energy yield throughout the year.

Vertical Single Axis Tracker

Vertical single axis trackers (VSAT) rotate the solar panels around a single vertical axis. This configuration enables the panels to follow the sun from sunrise to sunset, capturing its energy even during times when it is not directly overhead. VSATs are better suited for high-latitude regions where the sun’s path is more inclined towards the horizon, thereby requiring more vertical tracking. Their main advantage is that they can capture maximum sunlight during winters when the sun is lower in the sky.

Tilted Single Axis Tracker

Tilted single axis trackers (TSAT) are a hybrid between horizontal and vertical axis trackers. In this configuration, the solar panels are mounted on an incline, and the tracker rotates around a tilted axis, allowing the panels to follow the sun’s path more efficiently. TSATs are often used in commercial-scale solar installations that require a balance between cost-effectiveness and performance. Their versatility makes them suitable for both low and high-latitude regions, as they can be adjusted to the optimal tilt angle based on the geographical location.

Dual Axis Trackers

Dual axis trackers follow the sun’s movement along two axes, which allows for a more precise tracking of the sun’s position throughout the day. As a result, they can increase the power output of solar panels by up to 40% when compared to stationary panels. Dual axis trackers can be further divided into azimuth-altitude and tip-tilt trackers, each offering unique benefits for different use cases.

Azimuth-Altitude Dual Axis Tracker

The azimuth-altitude dual axis tracker (AADAT) consists of two separate axes: the azimuth axis, which rotates horizontally, and the altitude axis, which rotates vertically. This configuration allows the solar panels to follow the sun’s path accurately from sunrise to sunset and throughout the changing seasons. AADATs are typically deployed in large-scale solar farms, where maximizing energy production is of paramount importance. These trackers can be more expensive than single axis trackers, but they often justify the increased cost with their significant power output improvements.

Tip-Tilt Dual Axis Tracker

Tip-tilt dual axis trackers (TTDAT) comprise two axes of rotation that intersect at the solar panel. These trackers move along two diagonal axes, creating a more complex and precise tracking system. TTDATs are typically used for applications that require high precision and efficiency, such as space-based solar installations and high-end solar energy production facilities. Their higher cost and complexity make them less suitable for small-scale solar installations, but their performance benefits can be significant in specialized use cases.

Passive and Active Tracker Systems

Sun tracking technologies can also be distinguished based on their control mechanisms: passive and active. Passive tracker systems rely on the inherent properties of materials to achieve sun tracking, such as using the heat-induced expansion of gases in bimetallic strips. Passive trackers do not require any external energy input or active control, making them simpler and low maintenance. However, their accuracy and efficiency may be lower than active trackers.

Active tracker systems, on the other hand, employ sophisticated motor drives, sensors, and control algorithms to precisely orient solar panels towards the sun. These systems require external energy inputs and periodic maintenance, but they offer higher performance, efficiency, and tracking accuracy. Active trackers are more prevalent in today’s solar installations due to their technological advancements and increasingly competitive cost structures.

In conclusion, sun tracking technology offers a range of options for optimizing solar energy production. Factors such as geographical location, scale, and available resources play a significant role in selecting the most suitable sun tracking system for a given application.

Design Considerations for Sun-Tracking Systems

Sun-tracking systems can significantly improve the efficiency of solar energy systems by continually adjusting the orientation of solar panels to face the sun directly. However, when designing and installing a sun-tracking system, several factors must be taken into consideration. This article will discuss various aspects to consider, including geographical and climatic factors, site-specific requirements, power consumption and efficiency of tracker motors, and the cost-benefit analysis of installing trackers.

Geographical and Climatic Factors

Geographical location plays a key role in determining the effectiveness and suitability of a sun-tracking system. For instance, the sun’s path across the sky varies depending on latitude, with more significant movement at higher latitudes. This makes tracking systems more beneficial for locations away from the equator. Additionally, solar irradiation levels and the number of sunlight hours per day should be taken into account, as areas with higher solar potential will benefit more from sun-tracking systems.

Climatic factors also play an essential role in determining the viability of sun-tracking systems. Areas with frequent cloud cover or fog may not benefit as much from trackers because the sun’s direct path is often obscured. Similarly, areas with heavy snowfall or icy conditions may require additional maintenance and, depending on the amount and frequency, may not be suitable for trackers due to the risk of structure damage.

Seasonal variations in solar radiation should be considered, as well. During winter months, solar panels tend to be less efficient due to shorter daylight hours and lower irradiation levels. Depending on the location, a sun-tracking system can help counteract this issue to some extent by ensuring that solar panels are at the optimal angle for maximum energy production throughout the day.

Site-Specific Requirements

Every installation site will have its unique characteristics that must be considered during the design process. Factors such as available space, topography, shading, and soil conditions can all impact the effectiveness of a sun-tracking system.

For instance, the available space can dictate the type of tracking system installed. Single-axis trackers, which rotate along one axis, typically require less space than dual-axis trackers, which rotate along two axes. However, dual-axis trackers can offer higher energy production due to their ability to maintain a direct orientation towards the sun throughout the day.

Topography and shading can affect the efficiency of a tracking system as well. For hillside or uneven terrain, it may be necessary to customize the design to ensure that panels are not obstructing one another. Additionally, it is crucial to consider any potential shading from nearby structures or trees, as shade reduces the effectiveness of both the solar panels and tracking system.

Soil conditions are essential, too, as they can impact the stability and durability of the tracking system’s foundational supports. For locations with soft or unstable soils, additional measures such as pile-driven supports or foundation improvements may be necessary.

Power Consumption and Efficiency of Tracker Motors

The efficiency of a sun-tracking system is highly dependent on the power consumption and performance of tracker motors. When designing a solar tracking system, it is critical to select motors that are energy-efficient and reliable, minimizing any power losses due to tracking.

Motor efficiency is often affected by factors like load capacity, speed, operating temperature, and environmental conditions. It is essential to select motors with appropriate specifications to ensure optimal system performance. Additionally, the use of low-energy motors, such as brushless DC motors, can help reduce energy requirements and improve overall efficiency.

Environmental factors, such as dust and debris, can impact motor function, leading to degradation in tracker performance. Therefore, it is essential to choose motors that are robust and able to withstand such conditions.

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Installing Trackers

Finally, it is crucial to perform a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis before deciding to invest in a sun-tracking system. Factors to consider include the initial costs of installing the trackers, maintenance requirements, and the overall increase in efficiency and energy production.

Sun-tracking systems typically require more capital investment than fixed solar installations because they involve additional mechanical components and controls. However, they can often generate more energy and increase the overall return on investment by optimizing solar panel alignment throughout the day.

Maintenance costs should also be considered, as tracking systems generally require more frequent maintenance due to their moving parts. This can include cleaning and lubrication, repairing or replacing motors or bearings as needed, and ensuring the electrical components and wiring remain in good condition.

When evaluating the cost-effectiveness of installing sun-tracking systems, it is essential to compare the increased energy production and potential revenue to the initial capital investment and ongoing maintenance costs. In many cases and under the right conditions, sun-tracking systems can prove to be a wise investment that will improve solar energy system performance and increase overall profitability.

Components of a Sun Tracking System

A sun tracking system is an electromechanical device that automatically adjusts the position of solar panels or other solar collection devices to optimize their exposure to sunlight. Such systems are widely used in solar energy generation facilities to increase the efficiency and overall power output. There are various types of sun tracking systems, such as single-axis and dual-axis trackers. Regardless of the type, they typically consist of several key components: sensors and controllers, motors and drives, and structural support and mounting. This article will discuss these components in detail.

Sensors and Controllers

Sensors and controllers are critical components of a sun tracking system as they are responsible for detecting the sun’s position and adjusting the orientation of solar collectors. Common types of sensors and controllers used in tracking systems are:

Light Sensors

Light sensors are used to measure the intensity of sunlight in one or multiple directions. There are different types of light sensors, including photoresistors, photodiodes, and phototransistors. A common technique for sun tracking systems is to use an array of light sensors oriented in different directions. The outputs of these sensors can be compared, and the solar collector can be repositioned toward the direction with the highest light intensity. Light sensors have the advantage of being relatively simple, low-cost devices, but they may suffer from a lack of accuracy in some conditions, such as when scattered or diffused light is present.

Programmable Logic Controllers

Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are often used to control the movement of solar collectors based on inputs from light sensors or other sources. PLCs are capable of handling complex control algorithms and allow for flexible and customizable control schemes. They can be programmed to follow the sun’s movement based on time, date, and location data, or they may incorporate feedback from sensors to optimize the tracking accuracy. PLCs may also be used to control other aspects of the solar tracking system, such as the monitoring of the motor and drive components or the management of supplementary energy storage devices.

Motors and Drives

Motors and drives are responsible for converting the control signals from the sensors and controllers into physical movement. This movement ultimately adjusts the orientation of the solar collectors. The two most common types of motors and drives used in sun tracking systems are:

Linear Actuators

Linear actuators are used to create precise linear movements, typically along a single axis. They can be based on various technologies, such as hydraulic, pneumatic, or electric systems. Electric linear actuators are popular in solar tracking systems due to their relatively high efficiency, low noise, and easy integration with electrical control systems. They are commonly used for single-axis sun tracking systems but can also be adapted for dual-axis systems.

Rotary Motors

Rotary motors, such as stepper motors or servo motors, are used in some sun tracking systems to generate rotational movement. These motors can be used for single-axis systems by rotating the solar collector around a central axis, or they can be combined with linear actuators for dual-axis systems. Rotary motors offer precise control over the speed and position of the solar collector, although the mechanical linkage between motor and collector can be more complex than for linear actuators.

Structural Support and Mounting

The structural support and mounting components of a sun tracking system hold the solar collectors in place and facilitate the movement controlled by the motors and drives. Key considerations for these components are:

Rigid vs. Flexible Mounts

Solar tracker mounts can be rigid or flexible, depending on factors like wind resistance and the size of the solar collector. Rigid mounting systems provide a fixed connection between the solar collector and the support structure, while flexible mounting systems allow for some degree of movement to accommodate wind loads or other forces. Rigid mounts are generally less complex and less expensive than flexible mounts, but they may require more design effort to account for wind and other environmental factors.

Centralized vs. Distributed Support Structures

In a centralized support structure, all of the solar collectors in a tracker system are mounted on a single support structure. This can simplify the overall design and installation of the system, but it may limit the ability to adjust for varying ground conditions or adapt to future changes in the solar collector layout. In a distributed support structure, each solar collector is mounted on a separate support, allowing for more flexibility in the layout of the solar array and the ability to adapt to changes over time. Distributed support structures may require more individual components and higher overall material and installation costs compared to centralized structures.

Maintaining and Optimizing Sun-Tracking Systems

Sun-tracking systems play a crucial role in maximizing the efficiency of solar panels by continuously adjusting their positioning to follow the sun’s path. As these systems consist of various mechanical and electrical components, regular maintenance and optimization are required to ensure their smooth operation and longevity. In this article, we will discuss practical strategies to maintain and optimize sun-tracking systems through regular inspection, continuous performance monitoring, and identifying and addressing system inefficiencies.

Regular Inspection and Maintenance

To ensure the proper functioning of a sun-tracking system, periodic inspection and maintenance of various components should be performed. This includes calibrating sensors, lubricating motors and joints, inspecting and replacing worn parts, and tightening bolts and fasteners.

Calibrating Sensors

Sun-tracking systems rely on light sensors to ascertain the sun’s position accurately. Over time, these sensors can lose their calibration, affecting the system’s ability to track the sun efficiently. Regular calibration of these sensors, as recommended by the manufacturer or at least once a year, is necessary for optimal performance. Properly calibrated sensors ensure that a sun-tracking system can correctly detect the sun’s position and adjust the solar panels accordingly.

Lubricating Motors and Joints

The mechanical components of a sun-tracking system, such as motors and joints, require regular lubrication to prevent friction and wear. Lubricating all moving parts of the system with a high-quality lubricant minimizes noise, reduces wear on friction surfaces, and ensures smooth and accurate movement. Depending on environmental conditions, it is advised to lubricate the components every six months to a year. Regularly inspecting the motor brushes for wear and tear is also essential to ensure efficient and continuous operation of the system.

Continuous Performance Monitoring

Continuously monitoring the sun-tracking system’s performance is crucial for early identification of any performance issues and maintaining high efficiency. This is done through data logging and analysis, real-time monitoring tools, and identifying system inefficiencies.

Data Logging and Analysis

Data logging enables the tracking and storage of critical performance data generated by the sun-tracking system, such as sun position, voltage output, and the solar array’s alignment. By analyzing this data, you can understand the system’s overall performance and identify any irregularities, trends, or potential problems that may require maintenance. Data logging can be done through standalone data loggers or integrated monitoring solutions provided by the system’s manufacturer.

Identifying and Addressing System Inefficiencies

Identifying and resolving inefficiencies within a sun-tracking system can significantly improve its overall performance and lifespan. Examples of issues that may need to be addressed include misaligned solar panels, mechanical faults, and incorrect system wiring. Misaligned solar panels can reduce the amount of energy produced, while mechanical faults or incorrect wiring can negatively affect the system’s ability to track the sun.

Regular inspection of solar panels is necessary to identify any misalignment and make necessary adjustments. Mechanical faults can be identified and addressed during the inspection and maintenance process, as discussed earlier. Incorrect wiring should be examined by a professional electrician or the system’s manufacturer to ensure proper configuration.


Maintaining and optimizing sun-tracking systems is essential for maximizing their efficiency and prolonging their operational lifespan. By conducting regular inspections and maintenance, continuously monitoring performance, and addressing system inefficiencies, solar energy enthusiasts and professionals can ensure that their sun-tracking systems consistently generate optimal solar energy production.

Case Studies: Successful Applications of Sun Tracking Technology

Sun tracking technology has been increasingly used in solar energy systems worldwide to maximize energy output by ensuring that solar panels are accurately pointed towards the sun. In this article, we will discuss four different case studies of successful applications of sun tracking technology in various settings.

Utility-Scale Solar Power Plants

One of the most significant applications of sun tracking technology is in large-scale solar power plants. By implementing sun-tracking systems, these utility plants can improve their energy yields and further advance the potential of solar energy.

One standout example is located at the Nellis Air Force Base in Nevada, USA – the Nellis Solar Power Plant. As one of the largest sun-tracking photovoltaic (PV) power plants globally, this facility covers more than 140 acres and has an installed capacity of 14 megawatts (MW). The site uses over 70,000 solar panels mounted on dual-axis tracking systems, allowing the system to capture the sun’s energy with an efficiency of 30% more than traditional fixed-tilt solar arrays. The plant generates over 32 million kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity annually, meeting approximately 25% of the base’s electricity needs.

Residential Solar Installations

For residential solar installations, sun tracking technology also provides significant benefits as it maximizes power production on rooftops with limited space. Homeowners who choose to install solar panels with sun-tracking capabilities can benefit from increased electricity production and long-term savings on utility bills.

An example of a successful residential solar installation utilizing sun tracking technology is the Algenkamp family’s rooftop system in the Netherlands. Their 4-kilowatt (kW) PV system features 18 solar panels with an ingenious single-axis tracking system. This custom-built system follows the sun’s trajectory from east to west, allowing the panels to maximize their exposure to sunlight. As a result, the family has reported a 20% increase in energy production and a rapid return on investment.

Commercial and Industrial Solar Implementations

Sun tracking technology has also proven lucrative for commercial and industrial entities looking to minimize their carbon footprints and optimize energy production. Many businesses have adopted solar tracking systems to generate more electricity, which can be used for their operations or sold back to the grid.

One successful case is the system installed at the headquarters of Grupo Disur, an industrial group in Mexico. The company installed a dual-axis solar tracking system on its rooftop, featuring 72 solar panels covering an area of 500sqm. This system reportedly generates 52,000 kWh annually, satisfying more than 50% of the company’s energy needs. Thanks to this installation, Grupo Disur has significantly reduced its dependencies on external resources and improved its environmental profile.

Off-Grid and Remote Solar Energy Systems

Lastly, sun tracking technology offers a unique solution for off-grid and remote applications, where maximizing energy production is crucial due to limited access to traditional electricity sources.

One such success story can be found in Mali, where the renewable energy company Solektra International installed a solar tracking system to power a water pumping station. The 7.5 kW solar power plant consists of 30 solar panels mounted on a dual-axis tracking system. The system provides enough energy to pump 300,000 liters of water daily, ensuring clean water access to more than 15,000 people in the village. By using sun tracking technology, Solektra was able to optimize the system’s energy output and secure a reliable water supply for the community.

These case studies illustrate the diverse and innovative ways in which sun tracking technology has been applied in the solar industry, demonstrating its potential to increase energy efficiency and enhance the value of solar energy systems across various settings.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. How does sun-tracking technology improve solar power generation?

Sun-tracking technology increases solar power generation by continuously adjusting the position of solar panels to follow the sun’s movement. This orientation maximizes exposure to sunlight, enabling the panels to capture more solar energy compared to stationary setups (InstallAware Software, n.d.).

2. What are the different types of sun-tracking systems available?

There are two primary types of sun-tracking systems: single-axis and dual-axis trackers. Single-axis trackers follow the sun’s daily path from east to west, while dual-axis trackers adjust for the sun’s altitude through the seasons, providing more precise tracking (InstallAware Software, n.d.).

3. How much additional energy can be generated by utilizing sun-tracking technology?

Sun-tracking technology can increase energy generation by 15-45% depending on the type of tracker and geographical location. Dual-axis trackers generate more energy than single-axis trackers, while regions with more consistent sunlight experience even greater benefits (Soltec, 2020).

4. What are the main challenges associated with implementing sun-tracking systems?

Challenges of implementing sun-tracking systems include higher initial costs, increased maintenance requirements, and larger space requirements due to the inherent design complexity and mechanical aspects (Joshi & Dhoble, 2018).

5. Are sun-tracking systems suitable for residential solar installations?

Sun-tracking systems can be utilized for residential installations, but factors such as cost-effectiveness, maintenance needs, and space availability should be considered. For many residential projects, fixed-tilt solar panels may offer a better return on investment (Pennisi, 2020).

6. What types of solar applications typically benefit from sun-tracking technology?

Large-scale solar farms and commercial installations generally benefit most from sun-tracking technology, as the increase in energy generation often offsets the higher costs and complexity. Residential applications may benefit but should weigh the factors carefully (Joshi & Dhoble, 2018).


InstallAware Software. (n.d.). COMPONENT: Solar Tracker. https://www.installaware.com/kb/component-solar/
Joshi, S., & Dhoble, S. (2018). Solar tracking system: More efficient use of solar panels. Journal of Cleaner Production, 197, 20-31.
Pennisi, J. (2020). Solar trackers: everything you need to know. https://www.energysage.com/solar/solar-energy-system/solar-trackers/
Soltec. (2020). The importance of sun tracking in solar power generation. https://soltec.com/en/the-importance-of-sun-tracking-in-solar-power-generation/


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