June 9


The Latest Trends in Solar Panel Efficiency and Storage

By hacheng1@gmail.com

June 9, 2023

Solar panels are an invaluable source of renewable energy that harnesses the power of sunlight and converts it into electricity. The development of new technological advancements in solar panel efficiency and storage has allowed for even more effective utilization of this clean and renewable resource. Solar panel efficiency refers to the percentage of solar energy converted into usable electricity, while storage solutions allow for the stored energy to be efficiently harnessed at any time, regardless of the availability of sunlight. As the technology continues to evolve, the possibilities for harnessing the power of the sun become even greater.

Understanding Technological Advancements in Solar Panel Efficiency and Storage


Technological advancements in solar panel efficiency and storage have revolutionized the way we harvest solar energy. In the past, solar panels were deemed as inefficient and costly. However, with modern technological advancements, solar panels have become a more viable option for producing clean energy.

The overview of this topic will focus on the various technologies, methodologies, and materials used to improve solar panel efficiency, and how the efficiency of solar panels can be improved to generate more energy. One of the most critical technologies that have been developed in recent years is the use of Photovoltaic (PV) cells, which can convert sunlight directly into electricity. PV cells are made from a variety of materials such as crystalline silicon, cadmium telluride, and thin-film materials, each with various advantages and disadvantages.

In addition to PV cells, other technological advancements that have significantly improved solar panel efficiency include the development of solar trackers to follow the sun, the use of anti-reflective coatings, and the integration of micro-inverters to maximize the efficiency of each panel. Furthermore, storage technologies have also made tremendous strides in making solar energy even more reliable and efficient. With the use of energy storage systems such as Lithium-ion batteries, homeowners can store excess solar energy generated during the day and use it at night or during periods of low sunlight.

The importance of solar panel efficiency and storage cannot be overstated as the world continues to shift towards alternative energy sources. Improving solar panel efficiency and storage will not only make solar energy more accessible and affordable but also play a significant role in reducing overall carbon emissions. The state of technological advancements in solar panel efficiency and storage is continuously evolving, and it is exciting to see where it will take us in the future.

Importance of Solar Panel Efficiency and Storage

Advancements in solar panel efficiency and storage have become a crucial aspect of solar panel technology. The increasing demand for alternative sources of power has driven the need for more efficient and reliable solar panels.

Solar panels produce electricity by converting sunlight into direct current (DC) electricity, which is then transported to an inverter where it is transformed into usable alternating current (AC) electricity. The efficiency of solar panels determines how much energy can be produced by the panels per unit surface area. In general, a higher efficiency rating means that more power can be generated from a smaller area of solar panels. This attribute is crucial because it helps to reduce the installation cost of solar panels in a particular location.

Moreover, the ability to store solar power effectively is also essential in the advancement of solar panels. Solar panels generate more electricity than is needed during the day, and excess electricity produced during the day is often exported back to the grid, leading to wastage. The storage of solar energy in batteries enables homeowners to use solar power at night and during cloudy days, reducing reliance on the grid and cutting energy costs. It also ensures that no excess electricity is wasted, which improves the overall efficiency of the solar panels.

Furthermore, advancements in solar panel technology are essential in reducing the carbon footprint and greenhouse gas emissions in the energy sector. The increased efficiency and storage capacity of solar panels have contributed significantly to the growth and adoption of solar energy as a viable alternative to traditional fossil fuels. The use of fossil fuels for electricity generation produces harmful greenhouse gas emissions that are detrimental to the environment. Solar panels provide a clean and sustainable source of energy that doesn’t require any form of carbon combustion, thereby reducing harmful emissions into the atmosphere.

Finally, the importance of solar panel efficiency and storage cannot be overemphasized as it contributes to the overall performance of solar energy systems. The installation of efficient and reliable solar panels with good storage mechanisms yields maximum returns on investment for homeowners and businesses alike.

The overall efficiency of solar panels determines the amount of electricity that can be generated, while improvements in solar panel storage technology ensure that solar energy is available when needed the most. These attributes are essential in ensuring that solar panels remain competitive with traditional grid-based electricity, increasing their potential adoption among different users.

Current State of Solar Panel Technology

With the urgency to transition to sustainable energy sources, the efficiency and storage capacity of solar panels have become a major focus of research. Currently, the state of solar panel technology allows for the conversion of up to 22% of sunlight into usable electricity, which marks a significant improvement from the efficiency levels of previous years. However, the potential for further advancements in efficiency and storage remains high.

One of the current challenges towards improving solar panel efficiency is the issue of energy loss during conversion. This has led to research in the development of materials that increase the absorption of sunlight, such as black silicon and perovskite. Another challenge is the fact that even efficient solar panels have difficulty generating electricity in low-light conditions. Researchers are therefore exploring the use of tandem cells, which are comprised of multiple layers of semiconductors that can absorb different wavelengths of light.

There is also a growing interest in the development of solar concentrators and tracking systems, which would concentrate sunlight onto smaller, high-efficiency solar cells. Regarding storage capacity, the current state of technology involves the use of lithium-ion batteries, which have a high energy density and are widely available. However, the cost of lithium-ion batteries remains a barrier to their widespread adoption. There is therefore research in the development of alternative energy storage technologies, such as flow batteries and solid-state batteries.

In conclusion, the current state of solar panel technology has made significant progress towards achieving high levels of efficiency and storage capacity, but there is still much room for improvement.

Technological Advancements in Solar Panel Efficiency

Perovskite Solar Cells

Perovskite solar cells have been an emerging technology in recent years, showing promise in significantly improving the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of solar panels. These cells are made up of a unique crystal structure, which allows them to absorb a broad range of wavelengths of light, including those that traditional silicon-based solar cells cannot.

Perovskite cells also have a much simpler and cheaper manufacturing process compared to silicon cells. However, one critical issue with perovskite cells is their stability, as they tend to degrade quickly when exposed to moisture, temperature changes, and light. Researchers are actively developing ways to address this issue, including encapsulating the cells to protect them from environmental factors and introducing new materials to improve their durability. Additionally, advancements in perovskite cell technology are also exploring ways to combine them with silicon cells to maximize efficiency. With further research and development, perovskite solar cells hold enormous potential in revolutionizing the solar industry, paving the way for a cleaner and more sustainable future globally.

Multi-junction Solar Cells

One of the most promising technological advancements in the field of solar panel efficiency is the usage of multi-junction solar cells. These cells are made up of multiple layers of semiconductors, each with a differing bandgap energy. This allows the solar cell to capture a wider spectrum of sunlight and convert it into electricity. Additionally, the usage of multi-junction solar cells reduces the thermalization losses that occur in conventional solar cells, improving their overall efficiency. The creation of these cells was initially difficult due to the cost of their fabrication. However, recent advancements in material science and production techniques have led to lower costs and increased commercialization.

The usage of multi-junction solar cells also has the potential to improve the storage capabilities of solar panels. By capturing a wider spectrum of sunlight, these cells generate more electricity, which in turn can be stored in a battery. This is especially important for households and businesses that rely on solar power as their primary source of energy. The higher efficiency of multi-junction solar cells translates to more energy being stored in a battery, reducing the need for reliance on the grid or standby power sources.

The implementation of multi-junction solar cells can also have a positive impact on the environment. The higher efficiency of these cells means that fewer solar panels are required to generate the same amount of electricity, reducing the amount of land required for solar farms. Additionally, the reduced reliance on traditional power grids means that less fossil fuels are needed for electricity generation, leading to a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions.

Despite the numerous benefits of multi-junction solar cells, there are still challenges that must be overcome for widespread adoption. One major challenge is the degradation of materials over time, which can reduce the efficiency of the solar cells. However, research is ongoing to develop new materials that can withstand the rigorous demands placed on solar panels. Another challenge is the cost of production, which remains higher than conventional solar cells. However, as production technology improves, it is expected that the cost will continue to decrease.

In conclusion, multi-junction solar cells are an exciting development in the field of solar panel efficiency and have the potential to significantly improve the solar energy industry. With their higher efficiency and improved storage capabilities, they offer a viable solution for households and businesses looking to reduce their reliance on traditional power sources. While challenges still remain, continued research and innovation in the field will lead to increased adoption and a cleaner, more sustainable future.

Passivated Emitter and Rear Cell (PERC) Technology

Passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC) technology is a subtype of crystalline silicon solar cells that is designed to increase their efficiency through the use of passivation layers and a rear cell. PERC technology reduces the rate of electron recombination, which is the loss of electrons that occurs when they combine with holes, through the use of a rear cell that increases the amount of sunlight absorbed by the solar cell. PERC cells are also fitted with a passivation layer between the surface of the silicon wafer and the electrode to reduce the number of defects and impurities that can reduce the efficiency of the solar cell. The combination of these design features increases the efficiency of the PERC cells, with the potential of reaching efficiencies of up to 25%.

PERC technology has significant potential for widespread application in the solar industry due to its high levels of efficiency and the relative simplicity of its design. PERC cells can be produced using standard manufacturing processes for silicon solar cells, with only minor modifications required to incorporate the passivation layer and rear cell into the design. This makes PERC cells relatively affordable to produce, while still offering significant improvements in efficiency over standard crystalline silicon cells.

However, there are still challenges that must be addressed to make PERC technology more widely adopted. One of the primary challenges is that the optimization of the passivation layer and the rear cell requires advanced materials engineering, which can be costly. Additionally, the use of an additional rear cell and passivation layer increases the complexity of the design, which can make PERC cells more susceptible to defects and yield losses during manufacture. Finally, increasing the efficiency of PERC cells can lead to a reduction in the open-circuit voltage and fill factor of the cell, which can have an adverse impact on the overall performance of the solar panel.

Overall, PERC technology offers a promising approach to increasing the efficiency and affordability of solar cells. While there are still challenges that must be addressed, the potential benefits of PERC cells make them an exciting area of research and development in the solar industry.

Back Contact Solar Cells

Back contact solar cells represent an efficient type of solar cell that allows for higher levels of module efficiency and power density. These types of solar cells are unique in that the design involves the contact points being on the back of the solar cells rather than the front. As a result, the front of the cell has a clear and unobstructed surface area that can receive a greater amount of sunlight. This is made possible due to the improved conductivity provided by the back contacts, which allow for the solar cells to have a much lower resistance compared to traditional solar cells. Additionally, back contact solar cells can also have a reduced likelihood of shading and degradation due to the placement of the contacts. The benefits of back contact solar cell technology are driving a continued interest in the development and improvement of this innovative technology for better solar energy conversion efficiency and storage.

Anti-reflective Coatings

Anti-reflective coatings are one of the most effective ways to improve the efficiency of solar panels. These coatings are designed to reduce the amount of light that is reflected away from the panel’s surface, allowing more of the light to be absorbed and converted into electricity. Anti-reflective coatings work by altering the refractive index of the surface to match that of the surrounding air. This reduces the amount of light that is reflected off the surface and increases the amount of light that is transmitted through it.

The most common anti-reflective coatings used in solar panel technology are based on various materials, such as silicon dioxide, titanium dioxide, and zirconium oxide. These coatings can be applied using a variety of techniques, including chemical vapor deposition and sputtering. While anti-reflective coatings are effective, they do have limitations. For instance, they can be prone to degradation over time, which can reduce their effectiveness. Additionally, they can be expensive to manufacture, which can increase the cost of solar panel production. Nonetheless, anti-reflective coatings are an essential part of solar panel technology and will continue to play a vital role in improving solar panel efficiency in the years to come.

Technological Advancements in Solar Panel Storage

Lithium-ion Batteries

The development of lithium-ion batteries has revolutionized energy storage for solar panels. Lithium-ion batteries are rechargeable and highly efficient, making them the ideal choice for storing solar-generated power. These batteries use a lithium compound as an electrolyte, allowing positively charged lithium ions to move between the cathode and anode through a separator. This movement generates an electric current that can be used to power electronic devices, homes, and businesses.

Lithium-ion batteries are lighter and have a higher energy density than other types of batteries, making them perfect for use in solar panel systems. Additionally, they have a longer lifespan, require little maintenance, and are easy to install. With continued advancements in technology, it is possible that lithium-ion batteries could eventually become even more efficient, allowing for greater storage capacity and longer lifespans. Overall, lithium-ion batteries have proven to be a reliable and efficient method for storing solar-generated power, allowing us to harness the energy of the sun in a sustainable way.

Flow Batteries

Flow batteries are a type of rechargeable battery that allows for potentially unlimited energy storage by using two chemical components dissolved in liquids that flow through the system. Unlike traditional lithium-ion batteries, flow batteries do not have a solid electrode and instead use two liquids separated by a membrane. These batteries have caught the attention of researchers due to their ability to store large amounts of energy at a relatively low cost. This makes flow batteries attractive for use in stationary energy storage applications such as electrical grids. Additionally, the liquid components of flow batteries can be easily replaced, allowing these batteries to potentially have a longer lifespan than traditional batteries.

There have been recent advancements in flow battery technology, such as the use of new electrodes and electrolytes, which have improved the efficiency and overall performance of these systems. However, several challenges remain in developing flow batteries for widespread adoption, such as the need to improve their power density, reduce the size of the system, and minimize the degradation of the membranes and other components over time. Nevertheless, the potential benefits of flow batteries make them an exciting area of research as society continues to increase its dependence on renewable energy sources.

Solid-state Batteries

Solid-state batteries are a promising alternative to traditional lithium-ion batteries due to their potential for long cycle life, higher energy density, and improved safety. Unlike lithium-ion batteries, solid-state batteries use a solid electrolyte instead of a liquid or gel electrolyte, which significantly reduces the risk of overheating and fires. Solid-state batteries can also be made thinner and lighter, making them ideal for use in portable devices such as smartphones and smartwatches. In addition, solid-state batteries have a higher energy density, which means they can store more energy per unit volume or weight than traditional batteries. This could enable them to power electric vehicles (EVs) with longer ranges than is currently possible with lithium-ion batteries. Solid-state batteries are also expected to have a longer cycle life, meaning they can be charged and discharged more times before degrading.

One of the challenges with solid-state batteries is that they are more expensive to produce than lithium-ion batteries. However, as the technology matures and scales, it is expected that the cost will come down. In addition, there are several companies that are actively developing solid-state batteries for commercial use, including BMW and Toyota. Another challenge is that solid-state batteries still have limited performance in terms of power density, which is the amount of power that can be delivered per unit volume or weight. However, researchers are working on developing new materials and approaches to overcome this limitation.

Overall, solid-state batteries have the potential to significantly improve the efficiency and storage of solar energy, as well as the performance of EVs and other electronic devices. While there are still challenges to be overcome, the progress being made in this field is promising and suggests that solid-state batteries could play an important role in our energy future.

Hydrogen Fuel Cells

Hydrogen fuel cells are a promising technology for storing solar energy. They work by converting the chemical energy stored in hydrogen into electrical energy through an electrochemical reaction with oxygen. The result is a clean renewable energy source that produces only water as a byproduct. Although still in the early stages of development for commercial use, there is growing interest in using hydrogen fuel cells to store solar energy. The potential advantages of hydrogen fuel cells over other energy storage technologies are their ability to provide a high energy density and long-duration storage capabilities. Additionally, fuel cells can be scaled up to support a wide range of applications from residential to grid-scale, making them a promising option to accommodate the growing demand for renewable energy storage. While the technology is still in the early stages of development, hydrogen fuel cells show tremendous promise as another tool in the quest for efficient and sustainable energy storage.

Thermal Energy Storage

Thermal energy storage systems provide a promising pathway towards achieving sustainable energy solutions. They allow excess energy generated from solar panels to be stored for future use, reducing the reliance on fossil fuels during times of low sunlight. These systems work by converting solar energy into thermal energy and storing it within a heat transfer fluid. The stored thermal energy can then be converted back into electricity using a heat engine or a heat exchanger. The efficacy of these systems is dependent on the integration of highly efficient solar panels and the selection of the appropriate heat transfer fluid.

Recent advancements in materials science have led to the development of novel heat transfer fluids and advanced thermal storage systems that have high energy density and longer storage periods. Additionally, intelligent energy management systems have been created that allow for better control and optimization of the thermal energy storage process. The incorporation of these advancements into thermal energy systems allows for the seamless integration of solar energy into the electrical grid, reducing its dependence on traditional energy sources.

Challenges and Future Directions


One of the major concerns regarding the adoption of solar panel systems is their costs. However, technological advancements have significantly enhanced the cost-effectiveness of solar panel systems over the years. The integration of new materials and approaches in solar panel manufacturing has led to increased solar panel efficiency and reduced production costs.

Several emerging technologies, such as tandem solar cells, perovskite solar cells, and bifacial solar panels, have demonstrated higher conversion efficiencies and lower production costs than conventional solar panel systems, making them more cost-effective options. Perovskite solar cells, for instance, have the potential to reduce solar panel production costs by up to 75% compared to conventional silicon-based solar cells. Tandem solar cells, which incorporate multiple solar cells with different bandgaps, can achieve higher energy conversion efficiencies than traditional solar cells. Bifacial solar panels, on the other hand, have the ability to capture energy from both sides, increasing electricity generation and reducing installation costs.

Moreover, technological advancements in solar storage batteries are also driving down the costs of solar panel systems by enabling the storage of excess energy generated during optimal conditions for use during sub-optimal conditions. By enhancing the efficiency of solar storage batteries, the cost of producing and maintaining a solar panel system can be significantly reduced, making it more cost-effective in the long run.

Another factor that contributes to the cost-effectiveness of solar panel systems is the implementation of government incentives and policies, such as tax credits, rebates, and net metering. The implementation of these incentives can greatly reduce the upfront costs of installing a solar panel system, making it more affordable for homeowners and businesses. Additionally, the implementation of policies that promote the adoption of renewable energy sources can encourage competition in the solar panel industry, driving down production costs.

In conclusion, the cost-effectiveness of solar panel systems has significantly improved due to technological advancements in solar panel efficiency, storage, and manufacturing processes. Emerging technologies such as perovskite solar cells, tandem solar cells, and bifacial solar panels offer even greater cost-effectiveness and efficiency. Government incentives and policies have also played a significant role in reducing the costs of solar panel installations. As such, solar panel systems are becoming an increasingly viable option for homeowners and businesses looking to reduce their carbon footprint and energy bills.

Environmental Impact

The solar energy sector is fast gaining ground worldwide, and as technology evolves, the environmental impact of solar panel installations is an important consideration for policymakers, businesses, and individuals alike. Concerns about carbon emissions and the health risks of air pollution are driving the push towards green, renewable energy sources. Compared to traditional energy sources that use fossil fuels, solar power generation has a much lower environmental impact and is considered to be a more sustainable alternative.

One major environmental impact of solar panel systems is the release of hazardous materials and toxic waste during the production process of solar cells. However, innovative manufacturing techniques and recycling programs for solar panels can greatly mitigate this risk. Additionally, large-scale solar energy systems can result in land-use changes, which can have an impact on biodiversity. However, these impacts can be minimized by implementing upfront assessments and careful site selection that prioritize minimizing impacts to natural habitats.

Overall, the measurable environmental impacts of generating electricity with solar panels are considerably lower than those of fossil fuel-powered systems. Solar installations produce no greenhouse gases, which have been linked to climate change, and contribute to cleaner air and water. A solar panel’s carbon footprint is dependent on the geographic location and the efficiency of the solar panels. In general, the more efficient the panels are, the less carbon-intensive the manufacturing process is. Technological advancements in solar panel efficiency allow for a decrease in the number of panels required for a given installation and a reduced carbon footprint. These new techniques, such as bifacial solar modules, enable panels to generate electricity from both sides, further increasing their energy output.

The environmental impact of solar panels can be offset by considering their lifespan and extending their usefulness through recycling programs. Improving the recyclability of solar panels through ongoing innovation leading to better material efficiency will help address the issue of potential waste. The emerging technology of perovskite solar cells constitutes an exciting development in the quest for more efficient and eco-friendly renewable energy sources. The use of nanotechnology to produce solar panels will help make the manufacturing process even cleaner, reducing the environmental impact of these products.

Integration with the Power Grid

One of the most pressing issues facing the widespread use of solar panels is how to integrate them with the existing power grid. Current power grids were designed to handle large power plants, not distributed energy sources such as solar panels. However, technological advancements in solar panel efficiency and storage have made it increasingly cost-effective to integrate them into the power grid. One solution is the use of battery storage systems to store excess solar energy generated during peak production hours and dispatch it during periods of low sunlight. This helps to reduce strain on the power grid and increases the reliability of solar energy as a renewable energy source.

Another important consideration in integrating solar panels into the power grid is the implementation of smart grids. A smart grid is a digital infrastructure that allows for two-way communication between the power grid and solar panel systems. This allows for better management of energy production and consumption, which results in a more efficient use of renewable energy sources such as solar. It also allows for the integration of other energy sources such as wind and hydro, which helps to diversify the energy mix and reduce dependence on fossil fuels.

Finally, the use of microgrids is becoming increasingly popular as a means of integrating solar panels into the power grid. A microgrid is a localized independent energy system that can operate autonomously or in parallel with the main power grid. This allows for a more reliable supply of energy and reduces the risk of power outages. Microgrids are particularly useful in remote areas or areas prone to extreme weather events.

In conclusion, while there are challenges to integrating solar panels into the power grid, technological advancements in solar panel efficiency and storage have made it increasingly cost-effective and efficient. The use of battery storage systems, smart grids, and microgrids are just some of the ways in which solar panels can be integrated into the power grid and contribute to a more sustainable and reliable energy future.

Emerging Technologies

The field of solar technology is constantly evolving, with new advancements being made to increase the efficiency and storage capacity of solar panels. One of the most exciting areas of progress is the emergence of new technologies that promise to push the boundaries of what is possible in terms of solar power. These emerging technologies include a variety of different approaches, from new materials that are more lightweight and durable to new manufacturing processes that are more efficient and cost-effective.

One of the most promising emerging technologies in the field of solar power is the development of perovskite solar cells. These cells are made from a type of crystal called perovskite, which has been found to be extremely efficient at converting sunlight into electricity. In fact, perovskite solar cells have already demonstrated efficiencies of over 25%, which is comparable to traditional silicon-based solar cells and represents a significant improvement over previous generations of perovskite technology. This increased efficiency could greatly reduce the cost of solar power, making it a more viable option for consumers and businesses alike.

Another area of focus in emerging solar technology is the development of new storage methods that allow for more effective use of solar power. One such technology is the use of flow batteries, which store solar energy in a liquid electrolyte that can be discharged to power homes and businesses as needed. This approach is more flexible than traditional battery storage systems, which require a specific number of batteries to be installed and can only store a finite amount of energy. Other promising storage options include thermal storage systems that use heat to store solar energy and supercapacitors that can rapidly charge and discharge large amounts of energy.

Finally, there are also a number of emerging technologies that are focused on improving the durability and longevity of solar panels. One such approach is the use of flexible solar panels made from lightweight, durable materials like graphene. These panels are much more versatile than traditional rigid panels, making them ideal for use in a variety of different settings. In addition, new manufacturing techniques like inkjet printing and roll-to-roll processing are making it easier and more cost-effective to produce high-quality solar panels in large quantities.

Overall, it is clear that there are a wide variety of exciting emerging technologies in the field of solar power. From perovskite solar cells to flow batteries to flexible solar panels, these new innovations promise to increase efficiency, improve storage, and lower costs, making solar power an increasingly viable option for consumers and businesses around the world.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. What is the current status of solar panel efficiency?

Solar panel efficiency has significantly improved over the years, and the most efficient solar panels can convert up to 22% of the energy they receive into usable electricity. However, there is still room for improvement as researchers continue to explore new technologies and methods.

2. How are researchers working to increase solar panel efficiency?

Researchers are working on several approaches, including developing new materials such as perovskites, designing solar cells with multiple layers to capture different parts of the light spectrum, and exploring ways to reduce energy losses due to heat.

3. How does energy storage impact the usefulness of solar power?

Energy storage is essential for making solar power a reliable energy source. Without energy storage, power generated by solar panels would only be available during daylight hours. Battery storage systems allow excess energy to be stored and used when needed, which enhances solar power’s usability.

4. What is the current state of technology for solar energy storage?

Today’s most commonly used solar energy storage technology is lithium-ion batteries, which are reliable, efficient, and have relatively low costs. Other storage technologies, such as flow batteries and solid-state batteries, are still under development and have potential for significant improvement in future.

5. How do advancements in solar panel efficiency and storage impact the cost of solar power?

As solar panel efficiency improves and energy storage becomes more advanced, the cost of producing and using solar power continues to fall. With technological advancements, it is becoming increasingly cost-competitive with fossil fuels in many regions across the world.

6. What is the future outlook for solar panel efficiency and energy storage?

The future outlook for solar panel efficiency and energy storage technology looks very promising. With continued research and development, it is expected that solar panel efficiency will continue to improve, and energy storage technology will become more efficient, reliable, and cost-effective. This, in turn, will help to drive wider adoption of solar power as a sustainable energy source.


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